Alternative currencies are the future and matter for development

Lorenzo Fioramonti, University of Pretoria

When I began to teach in 2012, I decided to start my course with an analysis of how money affects social order. What my students found particularly fascinating was the then-nascent world of cryptocurrencies, which I described at length as a crucial feature in the future of money.

Some colleagues criticised my approach. They accused me of indirectly encouraging students to invest in what they saw as a shady, crime-ridden financial underworld. But I was simply exposing young minds to a fast-evolving, complex phenomenon that in my view would have a major impact on power distribution in the global economy.

alternative currencies cryptocurrencies Bitcoin Africa

shutterstock.
Shutterstock

 

Behind most cryptocurrencies is a simple technology known as “blockchain”, a system residing in multiple computers that allows for peer-to-peer financial ledger recording of all transactions occurring in a network.

This results in a transparent open-access registry of monetary flows which makes the intermediation of banking authorities unnecessary. Thus it challenges the conventional belief that money can only work through central planning.

As I explain in my book, Wellbeing Economy: Success in a World Without Growth, money systems are undergoing an unprecedented transition from centralised authority to decentralised networks.

Conventional money is managed by states and banks, with users on the receiving end of monetary policy decisions. By contrast, most alternative currencies are peer-to-peer. That means they are managed by users themselves and do not require intermediaries. Some of them have global outreach thanks to digital technology, while others are locally based.

Take BitCoin, the most popular peer-to-peer currency in the world, with a market capitalisation above 40 billion US dollars. A person buying the equivalent of $1 in BitCoin in 2009 would now possess roughly $25 million. One BitCoin is currently equivalent in value to two ounces of gold. Other rising stars include Ethereum, Litecoin and Ripple.

Taking the world by storm

Many of these currencies remain quite volatile in the short term. Their upward and downward swings reach over 10% of the value on a weekly basis. But the long-term trend is impressive. States are warming up to them.

In April 2017, Japan accepted BitCoin as a legal payment method for retail markets. After threatening digital currencies last year, the Russian government took a U-turn. President Vladimir Putin met the developers of Ethereum and committed to recognising cryptocurrencies in 2018.

Following an initial freeze, the People’s Bank of China readmitted withdrawals in BitCoin in June 2017, catapulting the currency to new heights. In the US, cryptocurrencies are becoming increasingly accepted as both a method of payment and store of value.

The Australian government will soon make it easier for new innovative digital currency businesses to operate, exempting traders and investors from goods and services tax.

It’s clear that cryptocurrencies will in the near future become much more common as methods of payment for a wide range of purchases, from online shopping to the local supermarket.

Developing countries are leapfrogging

Developing economies, too, are opening up to cryptocurrencies. In Venezuela, BitCoin has become the leading parallel currency. It provides millions of citizens with an opportunity to perform transactions and generate livelihoods, including buying food and other basic necessities in a country where official money is worth almost zero. It also allows them to purchase goods from overseas, overcoming ever-stricter capital controls.

In East Africa, local innovators have introduced cryptocurrency systems to support cross-border transactions, as exemplified by initiatives like BitPesa.

In South Africa, cryptocurrencies are becoming particularly popular. In Nigeria, local traders and activists believe this new money presents an opportunity to democratise the economy. This is propelled by the fact that people in Nigeria have been failed by conventional money.

According to my colleague Verengai Mabika, founder of BitFinance in Zimbabwe, the collapse of his country’s formal financial system has made BitCoin an attractive alternative. This is especially the case for online payments, which are restricted by banks, and for remittances, which constitute the backbone of the economy.

A growing number of Zimbabweans are also using cryptocurrencies as a saving mechanism (37% of all Bitfinance customers use it for that purpose), Verengai tells me. This is after the massive loss of personal savings during the hyperinflation period of 2008, which led to the collapse of the country’s banks.

Decentralisation and local economic development

The decentralisation of money is indeed at the core of this new trend, with potential repercussions in other fields. For instance, Ethereum is designed as a smart contract platform, that is a trading system completely based on peer-to-peer property rights. FairCoin was developed as the preferential currency for cooperatives, social economies and fair trade networks around the world.

Cryptocurrencies are just the tip of an iceberg. According to recent estimates, there are over 6,000 complementary currencies in the world, over 50 times the number of conventional money systems. Most of these are user-controllled and are interest-free. One cannot make money by simply trading in them.

Hoarding makes no sense in this new world. This is because value is not in the accumulation but in the exchange.

The scope is often limited to certain territories or types of transactions (for example, personal care, sustainable mobility and local trade). This creates an incentive to support local economic development and forms of exchange that are valued by communities of users.

Regiogeld, a network of local currencies which I studied when I was a researcher in Germany, has proliferated throughout the country. It has become the world’s largest system of local currencies, supporting small businesses and empowering communities.

In the near future, we will have a variety of money with different qualities and different purposes. This will make economies more resilient against shocks and will support more equitable and sustainable development, by putting users in the driver seat and reinforcing local economic development.

The ConversationAs my research demonstrates, a combination of regional, national and local currencies could also be the best way forward for the European Union, engulfed by its monolithic and unsustainable euro, and for any other process of regional integration, from Africa to other continents.

Lorenzo Fioramonti, Full Professor of Political Economy, University of Pretoria

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Cape Town can learn about surviving drought from Windhoek

Dian Spear, University of Cape Town

Human population growth, urbanisation, and climate change are all changing the world. To adapt, attitudes and behaviour must change and unsustainable attitudes and behaviours must shift. In addition, the social and political will to implement technological solutions must increase. Without these changes the world will continue to be vulnerable to the impact of climate change and the over-use of limited resources like water.

Populations in cities are growing, putting pressure on resources like water. This is likely to increase as climate change leads to more frequent and extreme droughts, particularly in southern Africa.

Cape Town South Africa drought Windhoek

Cape Town is experiencing the worst drought in 100 years.
Shutterstock

 

For decades Namibia’s capital city, Windhoek, has faced serious challenges providing water for its citizens. Water is a precious commodity in the city which gets a mean annual rainfall of a meagre 360mm. For comparison, Los Angeles receives about 380mm every year.. In addition, evaporation levels are high and the closest perennial river, the Orange river, is 750 kilometres away. And the city’s population has grown.

Even though they have very different weather patterns, there’s a lot a city like Cape Town, which is experiencing the worst drought in 100 years, can learn from Windhoek and how the city has conquered multiple water crises.

Windhoek, which is dry and gets a summer rainfall, has proved that technology can come to the rescue. But technology alone is not the solution. Water management has historically been engineer based with a focus on technical solutions. A change in culture around perceptions of water use formed a major part of Windhoek’s efforts. And learning from others can help to save water.

Lessons from Windhoek

Cape Town has very different weather patterns to Windhoek. The city has a Mediterranean climate with wet winters and warm dry summers. It usually gets over 500mm per annum, has a lower evaporation rate and has a number of rivers within a 150km radius of the city. These include the Breede, Olifants and Berg rivers.

Cape Town’s current water crisis follows two consecutive years of low rainfall in catchment areas. This has been in conjunction with an increase in the size of the city’s population.

Even though the cities have different characteristics, Cape Town should consider the actions taken by Windhoek which stretch back over the last 50 years.

Namibia Windhoek drought

Namibia has suffered a succession of droughts over the past 40 years.
Shutterstock

 

Namibia has suffered a succession of droughts over the past 40 years. But by the time of a major drought in 1996 the city had built three reservoirs and a waste-water reuse plant. On top of this water supply regulations were being strictly enforced. These included:

  1. A public awareness and education campaign.
  2. Water control officers and meter readers actively reducing wastage on private properties and enforcing watering times, the covering of pools and water saving equipment like low flow showers.
  3. Fixing leaks and the reduction of water use on municipal gardens.

These interventions had lasting effects. After the drought, residents reduced their garden sizes and changed garden types and irrigation methods. There was also a move to build houses in new suburbs that had smaller gardens. Changes were also made to industrial policy: no new development of water intensive industries like Coca-Cola was allowed.

During the 1990s there was an increase in the capacity of the waste-water reuse plant and consideration was given to recharging Windhoek’s aquifer. Storing water underground was an attractive option. More water was evaporating from water reservoirs than was being used by the city.

By 2002, the new Goreangab wastewater treatment plant was completed with the aim of providing potable water. By 2004, four boreholes were equipped for aquifer recharge with treated surface water – a process of pumping treated water from above ground into the aquifer.

But in 2016 water storage levels became very low again and immediate action needed to be taken. Severe water restrictions were imposed on residents and industry’s like Coca-Cola stopped production. Abattoirs had to cut down on production and there were job losses in the construction industry.

The City of Windhoek activated its drought management plan which included:

  • setting increasing water saving targets,
  • a progressive increase in tariffs,
  • cutting off the water supply to big users, and
  • rapidly implementing abstraction from the aquifer.

On top of this the country’s Prosperity Plan for 2016 prioritised the development of water infrastructure. In particular, recharging Windhoek’s aquifer and seawater desalinisation were identified as areas for immediate action.

Cape Town also has water saving goals and water restrictions plans. These include pumping water out of aquifers, constructing desalinisation plants and building more water treatment capabilities.

The proposed plans are in line with actions that have been successful in providing water to Windhoek.

Looking ahead

Windhoek hasn’t always got it right. Despite attempted public awareness and education campaigns, a major criticism has been the city’s failure to sustain a public awareness and communication campaign – particularly when there isn’t a perceived water crisis.

This has meant that targets for water use haven’t always been met. There’s a lesson in this for Cape Town. The fact that there’s been a slow response by residents to reducing their water use could mean that more communication, awareness and education is needed.

People won’t save water unless they perceive the need to do so. In Windhoek, about 60% of the water used is used by private households. Around 50% of this is used for gardens. This means that changes in household consumption can play a major role in water saving.

The ConversationOther steps that can be taken include increasing awareness by teaching water conservation in schools. In times of crisis, Windhoek is a good example of how raising awareness can play an important role in coping with water scarcity. Cape Town needs to follow suit.

Dian Spear, Southern Africa lead, Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions, University of Cape Town

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

How Africa can prepare against the next El Niño

By Esther Ngumbi

Governments and other key actors in food security need to prepare against the next El Niño, writes Esther Ngumbi.

After a long dry spell coupled with drought, the rains have finally arrived in many African countries, including Kenya and South Africa, and the 2017 planting season is underway. But this joy may be short-lived. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization released an update that projects a 50-60 per cent chance of an El Niño event forming in mid- to-late 2017.

Depending on the regions and hemisphere, El Niño events can bring either drought or floods. Either way, these conditions trigger food insecurity, increase malnutrition and enhance vulnerability to infectious diseases.

But this is not new. The last El Niño event happened in 2015-2016. This caused the worst drought in decades and failed harvests in parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific. As a result, millions of citizens across Africa and Asia experienced food insecurity.

“Preparing in advance and setting up concrete national plans will strengthen resilience, safeguard livelihoods and avert disaster.”

Esther Ngumbi

Such warnings must be taken seriously and measures need to be taken to ensure that citizens in the countries that may be affected are cushioned. After all, we all know that failure to act would lead to dire consequences as seen with the 2015-2016 El Niño events.

Efforts against 2016 El Niño

There is no dearth of examples of United States and countries in the African continent and other continents that have successfully implemented El Niño preparedness plans in the past.

Faced with the 2016 El Niño event, the state of California in the United States prepared in advance and created a thoughtful plan of action that was communicated to the citizens across the state.

Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are African countries that have in the past also made efforts to prepare for El Niño related events, even though the results were not as perfect as in California.

Anticipating the 2016 El Niño event, the government of Ethiopia prepared and rolled out plans for its citizens, including allocating 700 million birr (almost US$30 million) to pre-empt the influence and consequences of the phenomenon in the country. In addition, it communicated to its citizens the anticipated effects and implemented other actions to alleviate the aftermath effects. And in Nairobi and Narok, Kenya, government officials briefed citizens of the upcoming El Niño in public forums and urged citizens to prepare.

The RedR UK programme worked with Kenya during the 2016 Niño event and helped the government to develop disaster risk management manuals and plans that were distributed to county governments. Thus, most Kenyan counties put in place preparedness measures such as early warning mechanisms, drought contingency plans and a disaster management fund.

Preparing against predicted El Niño

First and foremost, governments and key actors in aiding food security must act and prepare with a sense of urgency. They should come up with detailed, well-thought out preparedness measures and national contingency plans of action.

These include deciding on triggers and a timeline for action, decision points, communication channels as well as the registration of its citizens that may need help. Preparing in advance and setting up concrete national plans will strengthen resilience, safeguard livelihoods and avert disaster.

Alternatively, countries can work with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization or other humanitarian agencies including United States Agency for International Development and the WHO to build the capacity to prepare for these disasters.

Preparedness must be backed with interventions that help citizens to make the most out of the current rain season before the predicted El Niño strikes.

“Countries should strive to learn to assess impact in order to know what works best.”

Esther Ngumbi

These interventions include ensuring that farmers have all the agricultural inputs such as drought-tolerant seed varieties including sorghum, millet and cowpeas that are needed for the planting seasons. Governments, through their agricultural extension officers, must educate the farmers on the need to plant these varieties.

All these interventions would allow farmers to increase their crop production and yields while diversifying and adapting their farming practices to make the most out of the current season.

Long-term and communication interventions needed

Equally important are long-term interventions. These include investing in irrigation and water supply facilities as well as rehabilitating water catchments and implementing rainwater harvesting to ensure that countries are able to grow crops during the drought season.

Most importantly, governments should develop strong and reliable communication channels that enhance the dissemination and sharing of information and data about all the available interventions from communities to national and regional levels.

Radio, mobile phones, and national television stations should be used to make citizens become aware of all the information they need to prepare and deal with the predicted disasters.

Finally, countries should strive to learn to assess impact in order to know what works best. This would allow countries to keep improving their disaster preparedness coping strategies.

Building on best practices should also help reduce costs. The UN FAO is in a good position to strategically coordinate such impact assessment exercises. After all, it does a good job compiling reports of how different countries responded to El Niño events.

Learning from the past, where El Niño events led to major famines, disease outbreaks, widespread loss of lives and displacement of communities, Africa should act with urgency to adequately prepare for what is predicted to come. We must never repeat past mistakes.

Esther Ngumbi is a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology at Auburn University in Alabama, United States. She serves as a 2015 Clinton Global University (CGI U) Mentor for Agriculture and is a 2015 New Voices Fellow at the Aspen Institute. She can be contacted at [email protected]

This piece was produced by SciDev.Net’s Sub-Saharan Africa English desk.

 

References

[1] Irene Mwendwa and others Kenya: Joy of rains after drought cut short by trail of destruction (allAfrica, 4 May 2017).

[2] Alex Mitchley and James de Villiers Cape Town residents jubilant as rain falls (News24, 3 June 2017).

[3] WMO Update: 50-60% chance of El Niño later this year (World Meteorological Organization, 28 April 2017).

[4] Abu-Bakarr Jalloh El Nino-induced floods ravage East Africa (Deutsche welle, 9 May 2016).

[5] Lucy Lamble and Emma Graham-Harrison Drought and rising temperatures ‘leaves 36m people across Africa facing hunger (The Guardian, 16 March 2016).

[6] East Africa crisis (CARE, 2016).

[7] Leslie Lopez El Nino: NASA describes what California should expect next (abc7, 2 February 2016).

[8] Mario Sevilla Officials release El Niño disaster response plan ahead of historic storm season (Kron4, 9 December 2015).

[9] El Niño preparation plan 2015/16 (Culver City, October 2015).

[10] Girmachew Gashaw Ethiopia: Preparedness to Address El Nino Impact (allAfrica, 14 August 2015).

[11] Lizabeth Paulat Uganda braces for strongest El Nino in 20 years (VOA, 10 November 2015).

[12] Elizabeth Were Kenya: Nairobi urged to prepare for El Nino (allAfrica, 19 August 2015).

[13] Narok Prepares for El Nino with check dams (Narok County Government, 2017).

[14] Africa: El Niño preparation and response (USAID, 2016)

[15] Kenya InterAgency Rapid Assessment (The RedR UK, accessed May 2017 )

[16] 2015–2016 El Niño Early action and response for agriculture, food security and nutrition (UN FAO, July 2016).

 

This article was originally published on SciDev.Net. Read the original article.

Why African fans love European football – a Senegalese perspective

Mark Hann, University of Amsterdam

Casillas throws the ball to Thuram, standing on the edge of his penalty area. The big defender passes to Zidane, who turns and dribbles past two opponents before playing a precise through-ball for Iniesta, who lays it on for Alves on the right wing. Alves curls in an accurate cross, Tevez rises at the far post to meet it with a powerful header – goal!

This may sound like the commentary for a testimonial or charity match, at which an all-star team of football legends past and present line up for a good cause. But at this match there are no supporters cheering the players on. There are no TV cameras recording the play, and not even a single blade of grass on the pitch.

And Frenchmen Zinedine Zidane and Lilian Thuram, Brazilian Dani Alves, Argentinian Carlos Tevez, and Spaniards Iker Casillas and Andrés Iniesta – fabled names from the upper echelons of European football – are nowhere to be seen.

Senegal European football Mark Hann

The local game in Senegal is underdeveloped.
Mark Hann/GLOBALSPORT

 

Instead it’s Ameth “Zidane”, Mbaye “Thuram”, Mamadou “Alves”, Saliou “Tevez”, Mohamed “Casillas” and Abdou “Iniesta”, all nicknamed after those footballing icons. We are in the Senegalese capital of Dakar, on a dusty pitch, watching a cup game between two local under-19 teams.

In Senegal European football is hugely popular. While local league teams play in almost deserted stadia, audiences crowd around televisions to follow the latest matches of the English Premier League, the Spanish La Liga, or the pan-European UEFA Champions League.

The latest goals, controversies and transfers in Europe are the subject of passionate debate and discussion on the streets of Dakar. By contrast, the local leagues attract hardly any interest. This is true in very many African countries. But I explore what lies behind this discrepancy in Senegal. As well as why a nation so in thrall to the beautiful game seemingly ignores the major competitions taking place on their own doorstep?

Why the big attraction

There are a number of reasons.

Jean Bertin Uwarugaba, a telecoms engineer of Rwandan origin who has lived in Senegal for over two decades, provided me with one obvious answer:

The local game is underdeveloped. It’s not attractive, because there are no historical rivalries between the teams.

With the deregulation of football broadcasting since the 1990s, the European game has become accessible and affordable to many Africans, especially those living in urban areas. Why should people consume a sub-par product when they can watch the elite level of the game in the comfort of their own homes?

Dakar-based Uwarugaba is a fanatical fan of top English club Chelsea.

I first started watching European football around 1999, in particular Olympique Marseille. Didier Drogba emerged as the leader of that team. After Drogba’s transfer to Chelsea in 2004, I started following the Premier League. I’ve been a fan of Chelsea ever since.

Another reason is the growing presence of African football stars in the top European leagues. This is certainly a big attraction. The Ivorian superstars Drogba and Yaya Touré, or the Cameroonian striker Samuel Eto’o are icons to fans in Senegal. There’s particular pride at the emergence of exciting young Senegalese players such as Liverpool’s Sadio Mané, Lazio’s Keita Baldé Diao or Kalidou Koulibaly who’s playing for Napoli.

However, the two most popular clubs in Senegal at the moment are the Spanish giants, FC Barcelona and Real Madrid, neither of whom currently has an African player in their first team squad – other than the Cameroonian born French international Samuel Umtiti.

Senegal European football Mark Hann soccer

Top league matches in Senegal are normally poorly attended.
Mark Hann/GLOBALSPORT

Specific local context of football

In Senegal, perhaps, the reason for this European obsession can be found by exploring the specific context of football – and sport – in the country. It’s worth looking at one local exception that attracts as much passion and fervour as the European giants – the navétanes inter-district championship, which includes the aforementioned team containing the illustrious names of Casillas, Zidane and Tevez. Saliou “Tevez” is the team’s centre forward, a fast and athletic young man who dreams of a career in Europe.

I played in the local navétanes team. Everyone started calling me Tevez, because I played like [Argentine player] Carlos Tevez. I worked hard, I scored goals, I was technical. We won the cup that year. Everyone in the neighbourhood knows me as Tevez.

Saliou’s exploits in the inter-district team are a reminder that there is a local football competition which ignites the passions and loyalties of Senegalese fans. It just isn’t the official league championship.

The navétanes championships take their name from the Wolof “nawet”, referring to the rainy season, and it’s primarily during these summer months that they take place. Since the 1950s, local teams have competed against one another to defend the honour and pride of the neighbourhood or village, and the navétanes matches often attract huge crowds.

Much is at stake: violent altercations and accusations of occult activity among fans are often reported, making the competition resemble Senegal’s other hugely popular sport of wrestling known for being saturated in magico-religious practices. The popularity of the navétanes championships and the national wrestling arena demonstrate that there’s a large appetite for local sports competitions.

The high demand for European football comes in addition to, not instead of, sport at the local level.

Ultimately, they represent two very different things. The navétanes championships, like wrestling, offer a visceral experience of sporting competition which is rooted in complex local meanings, regional loyalties and historical rivalries. In contrast, the viewing of European football matches on TV allows African fans to partake in the aspirational dreams exported worldwide by the Premier League or the Champions League.

Mark Hann African football Senegal soccer

Many young Senegalese boys dream of playing for big European clubs.
Mark Hann/GLOBALSPORT

 

Whether as a consumer, like Uwarugaba, or as a player, in the case of Saliou “Tevez”, there is a strong desire to participate in the football economy at the highest level. In this context, the local league championships are neither here nor there. They lack the passionate support of the navétanes teams, but are also unable to pay competitive salaries necessary to attract the best players.

In a sense, the popularity of European football in Africa is a direct consequence of neoliberal economic transformations, the liberalisation of media and the influx of satellite broadcasting into the African market. The commodification and marketing of European football to an African audience generates profits for telecommunications companies based in the global North, thus exacerbating inequalities and restricting the growth potential of the local game.

But, as pervasive as the globalisation of football may be, there is no denying the genuine passion it inspires among its African fans, and the creative ways in which the global game is incorporated into local narratives.

The ConversationThis article is based on research conducted as part of the GLOBALSPORT project based at the University of Amsterdam and funded by the European Research Council.

Mark Hann, Doctoral student in Anthropology, University of Amsterdam

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Shining light at night could suppress mosquito bites

By Munyaradzi Makoni

[CAPE TOWN] Exposing malaria-transmitting mosquitoes to light at two-hour intervals during the night or at late daytime could inhibit their biting behaviour and reduce malaria transmission, says a study.

A 2016 report of the World Health Organization says that 214 million people worldwide were infected with malaria in 2015, resulting in 438,000 deaths, with 88 per cent of the cases and deaths occurring in Africa.

According to researchers from the University of Notre Dame in the United States, the development of resistance to insecticides requires innovative approaches for controlling the malaria vector

“When we subjected the mosquitoes to a series of pulses of light … we observed suppression of biting activity during most of the night.”

Giles Duffield, University of Notre Dame

.

Therefore, they explored the potential of using light to target feeding times of mosquitoes by exposing Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes — a key vector of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa — to multiple pulses of bright light, especially in the night to help control their feeding behaviour.

“When we subjected the mosquitoes to a series of pulses of light with a two-hour interval and presented throughout the entire night, we observed suppression of biting activity during most of the night,” says Giles Duffield, a co-author of the study published in the journal Parasites & Vectors last month (16 June).

Giles, an associate professor of biological sciences at the University of Notre Dame, tells SciDev.Net that the finding was most prominent during the early to middle of the night and at dawn, phases of the night when people are least protected by the barrier of a bed net.

“Conversely, biting levels were significantly elevated when mosquitoes were exposed to a dark treatment during the late day, suggesting that light suppresses biting behaviour even during the late daytime,” the researchers note in the paper.

This is an interesting study, says Maureen Coetzee, director, Wits Research Institute for Malaria, at Witwatersrand University, South Africa.

But Coetzee notes that most Africans live in rural areas with no electricity and thus a lighting system would have to be set up using batteries or a generator, making the practical implementation of the method a bit challenging.

“I wonder how many people would be able to afford to set this up themselves, and I can’t see governments providing such equipment,” she tells SciDev.Net.

Coetzee says to get protection throughout the night, the light would need to be switched on every two hours, which would disrupt mosquito biting behaviour and human sleeping patterns.

“If I was woken up every two hours with the light going on for ten minutes, it would not take long before I started to suffer from sleep deprivation and I would switch the device off,” she says.

Giles agrees with the authors that more experimental work needs to be conducted both in the laboratory where the environmental conditions can be carefully controlled as well as under field conditions that match a more natural setting.

This piece was produced by SciDev.Net’s Sub-Saharan Africa English desk.

 

References

Aaron D. Sheppard and others Light manipulation of mosquito behaviour: acute and sustained photic suppression of biting activity in the Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito (Parasites & Vectors, 16 June 2017)

 

This article was originally published on SciDev.Net. Read the original article.